Sina testing subtle censorship ahead of Tiananmen anniversary

What happened?

On May 31, 2013 at 7am, we observed that searching for keywords that are normally blocked, for example, “六四事件” (June 4th incident), surprisingly returned some results and no censorship notice. This temporary lift of censorship ended at 9am but started and stopped a few more times into early afternoon, as if literally somebody was flipping a switch on and off at Sina headquarters.

Update on June 2: Sina is still constatnly swtiching between those two method.

Update on June 8: From June 3-4th and onwards, Sina Weibo seems to switch back to explicit compelte block for those keywords.

Change in Tact

To understand what is happening you need to be familiar with Sina’s various censorship methods. We observed and reported last year that Sina had implemented new tactics to censor particular keyword searches. Just days before the June 4th anniversary, Sina is again tweaking its censorship mechanisms. During the morning hours of May 31, Sina completely abandoned its old style, explicit approach to censorship, which displayed a message but no search results:

“According to relevant laws, regulations and policies, search results for [the blocked keyword] can not be displayed.”

No, Sina has not suddenly decided to fully support freedom of speech. On the contrary, it would appear that Sina is using more advanced and subtler methods to censor search results. All keywords mentioned below are normally explicitly and completely blocked. But each behaved a little bit differently on the morning of May 31.

Strictly filtering

The results we received when we searched for “六四事件” (June 4th incident) showed that the first page of results displayed not all results but carefully selected results. While the first results page seems to indicate that there are more than 50 pages of results, no results are shown when you click through to the next page or any page beyond the first. This censorship tactic was also employed last year for “香港” (Hong Kong) (Solidot story in Chinese).

Keyword example: “六四事件”(June 4th incident)

Delayed censorship

We have also previously reported that Sina has delayed search results for sensitive keywords.

When testing the delayed censorship tactic, we conducted two simultaneous searches of similar keywords, one sensitive and one non-sensitive. In the case of searching for results for “六四” (June 4), we used “五七” (May 7) as a control group, to be sure that search results were indeed intentionally delayed. As suspected, results for “五七” (May 7) displayed posts that were ten minutes old while the most recent June 4 posts were several hours old.

This indicates a marked improvement on Sina’s time delay censorship mechanism. Previously the default time delay was seven days. It is likely that many Sina Weibo users would find this time delay to be odd but could attribute this to a bug or a glitch in the system. With today’s hours-long time delay, most users will likely think that discussion around this topic is ongoing.

This is an example of censorship at its worst - users suspect their search term might get blocked before they search but instead of a censorship notice they are led to believe that what they are searching for is not sensitive plus not many people are saying anything interesting about the keyword anyway.

A good example of this can be found when searching for “天安门事件” (Tiananmen incident). The current search results do in fact bring up quite a bit of information about an incident which occurred in Tiananmen Square - in 1976.

Keyword example “六四” (June 4th), “天安门事件” (Tiananmen incident), 24周年 (24th anniversary) 法轮功 (Falungong)

Implicit complete censorship

Sina now returns a fake “Sorry, no results can be found” message instead of the normal censorship message that we have come to at once love and hate: “According to relevant laws, regulations and policies, search results for [the blocked keyword] can not be displayed.”

Keyword example: “64事件” (64 incident)

Implicit semi-censorship

Sina returned a partial censorship notice from page 2 onwards. The first page looks completely normal, leading users to believe that there are no decent search results for that keyword - why continue searching?

Keyword example: “天安门大屠杀”

V user only censorship

Some relatively low level sensitive words appear to be totally uncensored in this system. Is this the beginning of successful long tail sensitive keyword search on Sina Weibo?

Update: Earlier we said that some keywords appear to be completely uncensored. We have to admit that Sina even fooled us. Actually, all search results come from V users only. V users on Sina are like verified account on Twitter. Those users are more likely to follow the rules as they might face revoke of V status or block of account.

Keyword example: “游行” (demonstration)

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Mon, Jun 10, 2019

Apple Censoring Tibetan Information in China

Apple has a long history of censorship when it comes to information about Tibet. In 2009, it was revealed that several apps related to the Dalai Lama were not available in the China App Store. The developers of these apps were not notified that their apps were removed. When confronted with these instances of censorship, an Apple spokesperson simply said that the company “continues to comply with local laws”.

In December, 2017, at a conference in China, when asked about working with the Chinese authorities to censor the Apple App Store, Tim Cook proclaimed:

"Your choice is: do you participate, or do you stand on the sideline and yell at how things should be. And my own view very strongly is you show up and you participate, you get in the arena because nothing ever changes from the sideline."

In the ten years since Apple was first criticized for working with the Chinese authorities to silence already marginalized voices, what has changed? Apple continues to strictly follow the censorship orders of the Chinese authorities. When does Tim Cook expect that his company will help to bring about positive change in China?

Based on data generated from https://applecensorship.com, Apple has now censored 29 popular Tibetan mobile applications in the China App Store. Tibetan-themed apps dealing with news, religious study, tourism, and even games are being censored by Apple. A full list of the censored apps appear below.

Thu, Jun 06, 2019

Report Shines Spotlight on Apple’s Censorship Practices in China

The newest Ranking Digital Rights Corporate Accountability Index makes recommendations on what companies and governments need to do in order to improve the protection of internet users’ human rights around the world. Ranking Digital Rights (RDR) works to promote freedom of expression and privacy on the internet by creating global standards and incentives for companies to respect and protect users’ rights.

In their 2019 Accountability Index, RDR looks at the policies of 24 of the world’s most important internet companies in respect to freedom of expression and privacy and highlights the companies that have made improvements and those companies that need to do more. RDR notes that:

Insufficient transparency makes it easier for private parties, governments, and companies themselves to abuse their power over online speech and avoid accountability.

In particular, the report highlights how Apple has abused their power over online speech, and notes instances of this in China. According to the report, Apple has not disclosed data around the content that it removes from its App Store when faced with requests from the government authorities.

While [Apple] disclosed data about government requests to restrict accounts, it disclosed no data about content removal requests, such as requests to remove apps from its App Store. Apple revealed little about policies and practices affecting freedom of expression, scoring below all other U.S. companies in this category.

The report makes intelligent and sensible recommendations for governments. However, the recommendations also highlight how difficult it is to have these discussions with governments like China’s.

Thu, Nov 30, 2017

About those 674 apps that Apple censored in China

Apple opened the door on its censorship practices in China - but just a crack.

Tue, May 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

Mon, Dec 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

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