GitHub blocked in China - how it happened, how to get around it, and where it will take us

What happened?

Update: On January 23, was unblocked again.

On January 18, or possibly the day before (though our test data doesn’t cover this), the Great Firewall began to reset connections containing “*”. As a result, code sharing projects hosted on a subdomain of GitHub, such as, were blocked in China. The main GitHub website was mostly unaffected, for two reasons. Firstly, it’s hosted on, without a subdomain. Secondly, it serves encrypted content only, thus preventing the Great Firewall from resetting connections based on keywords.

A day later, the block was extended through the inclusion of, without subdomains, in the list of keywords causing connections to be reset. Chinese users could still access GitHub as long as they manually typed in in their browser (notice the https). Strangely the host was DNS poisoned, but not any other hosts. The www subdomain is not used by GitHub.

On January 21, DNS poisoning was extended to all hosts including the root domain as well as all its subdomains. In effect, all of GitHub was blocked in China.

Interestingly, the blocking of GitHub has seemingly not been censored on social media. The keyword “github” has not been blocked on Sina Weibo, and we have not detected any deleted posts containing “github” on FreeWeibo.

For further information on how the blocking was introduced, including data references, see the Timeline at the end of this article.

Why oh why?

As always when online censorship in China changes, the first question asked is why. While we cannot be certain, it doesn’t stop us, or anyone else, from speculating.

Some have suggested that it may be because of the Mongol project, hosted on GitHub. Mongol is an open-source tool used to detect routers that block certain connections going out of China - in essence tracking where the Great Firewall is located. While such a tool may seem threatening from the point of view of the Chinese authorities, there are a few facts that make the blocking of Mongol seem unlikely: the tool was released a full month ago, the working principle of the software was released back in 2011 and the paper describing it is still not blocked.

Another theory is that the government jumped on the opportunity to block an all-encrypted file-sharing service which, though intended for code sharing, can also be used to share politically sensitive material. Other file sharing services have faced similar dilemmas in China, including Dropbox which was blocked in 2010. Was GitHub being used by activists to share information?

The train ticket theory

The most gripping tale though ties this story in with China’s annual mass migration during the new year holiday. Each year tens of millions of Chinese scramble to purchase a limited and insufficient number of train tickets so they can make the journey home to spend the holiday with their families. Train tickets in China can only be bought 18 days ahead of the planned journey. With tens of millions of people traveling home for the Spring Festival, getting hold of the right ticket is a real challenge. Failure can mean missing out on the often only once-a-year chance to meet up with the family.

With the increased use of the internet, however, a lot of ticket sales are done online via the government-run website While waiting for the right ticket to go on sale, users will often reload a web page continuously. This is of course a problem easily solved by creative software developers. Several Chinese web browser providers rolled out add-ons that automatically reload the government website and book the ticket as soon as it's available.

A particularly interesting add-on was called 12306_ticket_helper (, now deleted). The software was using files embedded on GitHub. It’s sudden popularity caused such a traffic load that GitHub temporarily went offline, and an employee sent an abuse complaint to GitHub didn't know that it was actually the browser add-on that embedded the file, and not the website itself.

On January 18, at the same time that the GitHub block was introduced, the Ministry of Railways was said to be asking Kingsoft, one of the other browser providers, to disable their ticket-buying add-on. On the same day, the Ministry of Industry ordered all browser providers to remove similar add-ons.

Is the GitHub block just a matter of the site being in the wrong place at the wrong time? It’s not inconceivable to think that when the Ministers of Railways and Industry say “dance” that everyone dances. After all of the accomplices who were involved in the ticket scandal made amends, it is likely that they looked further to see who else was involved and GitHub may have just found themselves caught in that net.

If this is true, then this episode does reveal something about the Chinese censorship mechanism. One of two things would have had to occur for GitHub to have been blocked. The person who has his finger on the censorship button had free reign to just censor what he thought needed to be censored (in relation to the ticket scandal) which would indicate that this civil servant does not have to jump through a lot of hoops when he thinks a site should be blocked. Another explanation is that the powers-that-be in the censorship bureau who gave the go-ahead to block GitHub are so incompetent that they could not comprehend the fallout related to closing down the site. They were either too lazy to investigate, too distracted to care or just plain oblivious to the role that GitHub plays for many developers across China.

Our tests indicate that the likely answer is a combination of the two theories above. At first the censors started resetting * but found that this was ineffective. So then they moved to a more comprehensive block when they understood that the first one was not working. Which would mean that the powers-that-be had no understanding of how GitHub works and the civil servant with his finger on the button can choose to push that button whenever he wants.

The HTTPS theory (true either way)

Because GitHub is HTTPS-only, the Great Firewall cannot block individual pages. Regardless of the specific project the authorities wanted to block access to, the only way they could do it was to block GitHub altogether. This could have severe implications for other websites as well. As more and more of the Internet is switching to encrypted connections, the ability for online censorship authorities to selectively block content decreases. If, or perhaps when, Google Search, Wikipedia and CNN switch to HTTPS-only, will the Chinese authorities decide to block them altogether as well?

What will the knock on effects be?

According to Alexa, GitHub is the 276th most popular website in China. Globally, GitHub is ranked 209th. Since its targeting a very specific audience (software developers), that’s not a bad ranking. Github themselves told Techinasia that China ranks fourth in terms of visits to the site.  The only foreign-hosted websites ranked higher than GitHub in China are Google, Bing (and,,, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, Apple, eBay and Adobe.

While GitHub is popular, there are many other code-sharing services offering alternatives. Google Code is not blocked, though the HTTPS version sometimes is, and if or when they switch to HTTPS-only they may well face the same dilemma as GitHub. Sourceforge is also not blocked, as well as many other smaller providers.

Software developers often have to work with whatever code sharing service their project is already using. Switching from one to another is somewhat complicated. Many Chinese developers, especially the ones that work with customers abroad, will now have to use circumvention tools to stay in business. With such tools being actively targeted, some of them may not be able to continue their work at all.

China has been successful in attracting a lot of foreign developer houses to the country due to lower costs and access to plenty of developer talent. Foreign investors in this area may now start to question if it is a wise decision to place so many human resources in a country that may prevent or limit access to key technical resources without warning. Companies who run Gmail for their enterprises have learned the hard way that their communications can be turned off on a whim. Most who experienced outages when China completely blocked Google last November have probably found enterprise alternatives to Gmail already. Companies will now likely consider more stable alternatives to China.

The most devastating impact could come in an attitude shift amongst young Chinese. China’s censors have effectively just pissed off a whole nation of developers. It is likely they knew how to get around the firewall anyway but when developers have to turn on VPNs or fiddle with proxies in order to do their jobs, they will get upset. Does China really want to create a generation of would-be hackers? Especially within her borders? Could this signal the birth of a Chinese Anonymous? Perhaps an end to online censorship in China is now closer than we think?

How to get around it?

If the Great Firewall has not fallen by the time you read this, then you can follow these instructions to circumvent the blocking of GitHub.

If you are using a VPN, all your traffic is rerouted through a foreign server and GitHub will work as usual. Unless the Great Firewall also blocks the IP address of GitHub, another simpler alternative is to manually edit the so-called hosts file, adding the following entry:

With such an entry in place, connections to will work from inside the Great Firewall. The unencrypted will not work, so remember to add the “https” manually.

The IP address of GitHub may change at any time, of course. A more stable solution is to use an encrypted DNS lookup service such as DNSCrypt which effectively bypasses DNS poisining. Ironically, the Mac version downloads links to GitHub, which of course is blocked. But the final download link is not blocked:

If you are using an SSH tunnel or some other type of proxy, you can configure GitHub to make use of it with the following command:

git config --global http.proxy YOUR_PROXY


Jan 18Connection reset of * including (not DNS poisoned)
Jan 19Connection reset of github.com
Jan 19DNS poisoning of www.github.com
Jan 19the keyword causes connection reset on Google Search
Jan 20Connection reset of * (still not DNS poisoned)
Jan 21DNS poisoning of root domain (as well as *



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Thu, Sep 24, 2015

Apple blocked CNNIC CA months after MITM attacks

In March of this year, Google found unauthorized digital certificates for several Google domains. The root certificate authority for these domains was the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC). CNNIC was controlled by the Chinese government through the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and is now under the management of the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC). CNNIC was recognized by all major browsers as a trusted Certificate Authority. If CNNIC signs a fake certificate used in a man-in-the-middle attack, no browser will warn of any unusual activity unless the certificate is pinned.

Wed, Sep 23, 2015

Malicious Xcode could spread via download manager Xunlei

What’s at stake?

We reported last week that popular Chinese iOS apps were compromised in an unprecedented malware attack. We discovered that the source of the infection was compromised copies of Xcode hosted on Baidu Pan. Apple has published an article urging developers to download Xcode directly from the Mac App Store, or from the Apple Developer website and validate signatures. We’ve now discovered that even if a developer uses a download link seemingly from Apple, he might still be possible to obtain a compromised copy of Xcode.

Please note that we do not have evidence that such attacks has happened. But it is an easy attack that anyone can implement.

How does it work?

This compromise happened because of Xunlei. Xunlei is the most popular download manager in China. Much of its popularity is due to the fact they can accelerate download speeds by pulling resources from other Xunlei users as well as cached copies on the Xunlei server. All of this, however, is invisible to users. Users can simply enter a regular http download address into Xunlei  download manager and the download will start. Chinese developers were using direct download addresses such as to download Xcode.

Mon, Sep 21, 2015



Sat, Sep 19, 2015

Popular Chinese iOS apps compromised in unprecedented malware attack

What happened?

According to recent reports, some versions of Xcode used by developers in China have been compromised and are being used to inject tracking codes in iOS apps without developer knowledge. (1,2). Unaware of the injection, those developers then released their compromised iOS apps to the App Store which were then later approved by Apple. At the time of writing this post, the compromised apps are still available in the App store. Any user who has installed and launched these compromised apps will be a victim of these tracking codes.

This is a significant compromise of Apple’s app store. Apple notoriously manually reviews all app submissions and, in comparison to Android stores, has been relatively malware-free. This is the most widespread and significant spread of malware in the history of the Apple app store, anywhere in the world.

The compromised version of Xcode was hosted on Baidu Pan. It is unlikely that Baidu was aware of the compromised version of Xcode. The company removed the files yesterday when news of the compromise surfaced. Because of slow download speeds from foreign websites in China, many Chinese developers prefer to download apps from domestic websites. Many Chinese also use download software like Xunlei, rather than downloading directly from the official Mac App Store.

According to users reports, many prominent Chinese apps are affected. We have included links to the compromised apps in the list below but DO NOT DOWNLOAD these apps. We are simply linking to them so that users can recognize the apps. Affected apps include:  

Wechat The most popolar messaging app in China 

Wed, Sep 16, 2015



Roya, David, Nick, nweaver, Vern, 和我刚刚完成了关于GFW主动探测系统的研究。这个系统在几年前就被用来探测翻墙工具,比如Tor。我们在之前的博文中介绍过GFW主动探测系统是如何工作的。但有几个问题我们没有回答。比如这个系统的物理结构是怎样的。那些用来主动探测的IP是归GFW所有的么? 有猜测GFW短时间内劫持了部分IP来用来主动探测,但没有证据。这次研究回答了这些问题。


  • 通常来说,如果Tor的某个网桥代理被GFW检测并封锁,它会一直被封锁。但是这意味着网桥代理完全无法访问吗? 我们让中国的VPS一直连接我们控制的网桥代理。我们发现,每25小时,中国的VPS可以短暂的连接到我们的代理网桥。下图显示了这个现象。每个数据点表示中国的VPS试图与网桥代理建立连接。中国联通和中国教育网都有这个周期性现象。有时候,网络安全设备在更新规则时会默认允许所有流量,但我们不知道GFW周期性现象是不是因为这个原因导致的。

  • 我们找到了规律,GFW主动探测的TCP头暗示那几千个IP都来自与同一个地方。下图显示了数据包的初始序号和时间。每个数据点都是一个主动探测连接。如果每个主动探测都是从不同地方发出的,我们应该看到随机的数据点,因为数据包的初始序号是随机选择的。但是下图显示主动探测连接虽然来自不同IP,但是非常有规律。我们认为主动探测的初始序号是按照时间产生的。


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