GitHub blocked in China - how it happened, how to get around it, and where it will take us

What happened?

Update: On January 23, was unblocked again.

On January 18, or possibly the day before (though our test data doesn’t cover this), the Great Firewall began to reset connections containing “*”. As a result, code sharing projects hosted on a subdomain of GitHub, such as, were blocked in China. The main GitHub website was mostly unaffected, for two reasons. Firstly, it’s hosted on, without a subdomain. Secondly, it serves encrypted content only, thus preventing the Great Firewall from resetting connections based on keywords.

A day later, the block was extended through the inclusion of, without subdomains, in the list of keywords causing connections to be reset. Chinese users could still access GitHub as long as they manually typed in in their browser (notice the https). Strangely the host was DNS poisoned, but not any other hosts. The www subdomain is not used by GitHub.

On January 21, DNS poisoning was extended to all hosts including the root domain as well as all its subdomains. In effect, all of GitHub was blocked in China.

Interestingly, the blocking of GitHub has seemingly not been censored on social media. The keyword “github” has not been blocked on Sina Weibo, and we have not detected any deleted posts containing “github” on FreeWeibo.

For further information on how the blocking was introduced, including data references, see the Timeline at the end of this article.

Why oh why?

As always when online censorship in China changes, the first question asked is why. While we cannot be certain, it doesn’t stop us, or anyone else, from speculating.

Some have suggested that it may be because of the Mongol project, hosted on GitHub. Mongol is an open-source tool used to detect routers that block certain connections going out of China - in essence tracking where the Great Firewall is located. While such a tool may seem threatening from the point of view of the Chinese authorities, there are a few facts that make the blocking of Mongol seem unlikely: the tool was released a full month ago, the working principle of the software was released back in 2011 and the paper describing it is still not blocked.

Another theory is that the government jumped on the opportunity to block an all-encrypted file-sharing service which, though intended for code sharing, can also be used to share politically sensitive material. Other file sharing services have faced similar dilemmas in China, including Dropbox which was blocked in 2010. Was GitHub being used by activists to share information?

The train ticket theory

The most gripping tale though ties this story in with China’s annual mass migration during the new year holiday. Each year tens of millions of Chinese scramble to purchase a limited and insufficient number of train tickets so they can make the journey home to spend the holiday with their families. Train tickets in China can only be bought 18 days ahead of the planned journey. With tens of millions of people traveling home for the Spring Festival, getting hold of the right ticket is a real challenge. Failure can mean missing out on the often only once-a-year chance to meet up with the family.

With the increased use of the internet, however, a lot of ticket sales are done online via the government-run website While waiting for the right ticket to go on sale, users will often reload a web page continuously. This is of course a problem easily solved by creative software developers. Several Chinese web browser providers rolled out add-ons that automatically reload the government website and book the ticket as soon as it's available.

A particularly interesting add-on was called 12306_ticket_helper (, now deleted). The software was using files embedded on GitHub. It’s sudden popularity caused such a traffic load that GitHub temporarily went offline, and an employee sent an abuse complaint to GitHub didn't know that it was actually the browser add-on that embedded the file, and not the website itself.

On January 18, at the same time that the GitHub block was introduced, the Ministry of Railways was said to be asking Kingsoft, one of the other browser providers, to disable their ticket-buying add-on. On the same day, the Ministry of Industry ordered all browser providers to remove similar add-ons.

Is the GitHub block just a matter of the site being in the wrong place at the wrong time? It’s not inconceivable to think that when the Ministers of Railways and Industry say “dance” that everyone dances. After all of the accomplices who were involved in the ticket scandal made amends, it is likely that they looked further to see who else was involved and GitHub may have just found themselves caught in that net.

If this is true, then this episode does reveal something about the Chinese censorship mechanism. One of two things would have had to occur for GitHub to have been blocked. The person who has his finger on the censorship button had free reign to just censor what he thought needed to be censored (in relation to the ticket scandal) which would indicate that this civil servant does not have to jump through a lot of hoops when he thinks a site should be blocked. Another explanation is that the powers-that-be in the censorship bureau who gave the go-ahead to block GitHub are so incompetent that they could not comprehend the fallout related to closing down the site. They were either too lazy to investigate, too distracted to care or just plain oblivious to the role that GitHub plays for many developers across China.

Our tests indicate that the likely answer is a combination of the two theories above. At first the censors started resetting * but found that this was ineffective. So then they moved to a more comprehensive block when they understood that the first one was not working. Which would mean that the powers-that-be had no understanding of how GitHub works and the civil servant with his finger on the button can choose to push that button whenever he wants.

The HTTPS theory (true either way)

Because GitHub is HTTPS-only, the Great Firewall cannot block individual pages. Regardless of the specific project the authorities wanted to block access to, the only way they could do it was to block GitHub altogether. This could have severe implications for other websites as well. As more and more of the Internet is switching to encrypted connections, the ability for online censorship authorities to selectively block content decreases. If, or perhaps when, Google Search, Wikipedia and CNN switch to HTTPS-only, will the Chinese authorities decide to block them altogether as well?

What will the knock on effects be?

According to Alexa, GitHub is the 276th most popular website in China. Globally, GitHub is ranked 209th. Since its targeting a very specific audience (software developers), that’s not a bad ranking. Github themselves told Techinasia that China ranks fourth in terms of visits to the site.  The only foreign-hosted websites ranked higher than GitHub in China are Google, Bing (and,,, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, Apple, eBay and Adobe.

While GitHub is popular, there are many other code-sharing services offering alternatives. Google Code is not blocked, though the HTTPS version sometimes is, and if or when they switch to HTTPS-only they may well face the same dilemma as GitHub. Sourceforge is also not blocked, as well as many other smaller providers.

Software developers often have to work with whatever code sharing service their project is already using. Switching from one to another is somewhat complicated. Many Chinese developers, especially the ones that work with customers abroad, will now have to use circumvention tools to stay in business. With such tools being actively targeted, some of them may not be able to continue their work at all.

China has been successful in attracting a lot of foreign developer houses to the country due to lower costs and access to plenty of developer talent. Foreign investors in this area may now start to question if it is a wise decision to place so many human resources in a country that may prevent or limit access to key technical resources without warning. Companies who run Gmail for their enterprises have learned the hard way that their communications can be turned off on a whim. Most who experienced outages when China completely blocked Google last November have probably found enterprise alternatives to Gmail already. Companies will now likely consider more stable alternatives to China.

The most devastating impact could come in an attitude shift amongst young Chinese. China’s censors have effectively just pissed off a whole nation of developers. It is likely they knew how to get around the firewall anyway but when developers have to turn on VPNs or fiddle with proxies in order to do their jobs, they will get upset. Does China really want to create a generation of would-be hackers? Especially within her borders? Could this signal the birth of a Chinese Anonymous? Perhaps an end to online censorship in China is now closer than we think?

How to get around it?

If the Great Firewall has not fallen by the time you read this, then you can follow these instructions to circumvent the blocking of GitHub.

If you are using a VPN, all your traffic is rerouted through a foreign server and GitHub will work as usual. Unless the Great Firewall also blocks the IP address of GitHub, another simpler alternative is to manually edit the so-called hosts file, adding the following entry:

With such an entry in place, connections to will work from inside the Great Firewall. The unencrypted will not work, so remember to add the “https” manually.

The IP address of GitHub may change at any time, of course. A more stable solution is to use an encrypted DNS lookup service such as DNSCrypt which effectively bypasses DNS poisining. Ironically, the Mac version downloads links to GitHub, which of course is blocked. But the final download link is not blocked:

If you are using an SSH tunnel or some other type of proxy, you can configure GitHub to make use of it with the following command:

git config --global http.proxy YOUR_PROXY


Jan 18Connection reset of * including (not DNS poisoned)
Jan 19Connection reset of github.com
Jan 19DNS poisoning of www.github.com
Jan 19the keyword causes connection reset on Google Search
Jan 20Connection reset of * (still not DNS poisoned)
Jan 21DNS poisoning of root domain (as well as *



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Thu, Nov 30, 2017

About those 674 apps that Apple censored in China

Apple opened the door on its censorship practices in China - but just a crack.

Tue, May 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (, the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.


Mon, Dec 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

Thu, Nov 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

Tue, Jul 05, 2016 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性






我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。


我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。





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