Hackers, bloggers and professors team up to tap into blocked microblog content

The stated-sponsered newspaper Global Times published an article about Weibo censorship on July 28th 2013 both in print and electronicallly. The article was removed from the website two days later.  The article is reproduced below.

Update on Aug 12: According to The Diplomat,  "A source close to the matter inside the Global Times tells The Diplomat, "After Kaifu Lee tweeted it on Weibo, it got too much attention and got on the authorities' radar." The same source also confirms that the propaganda department did play a role in taking it down." 

We at GreatFire.org also contacted the Global Times in early August regarding the deletion of the article, but all we got was "[Auto Reply] Your message has been received" and nothing more.

Hackers, bloggers and professors team up to tap into blocked microblog content

Global Times | 2013-7-28 19:13:01
By Xuyang Jingjing

With over 500 million registered users and over 46 million daily active users, Sina Weibo is the largest and most influential social media platform in China. It has also become known as a fostering ground for discussions with a more liberal slant.

But what is not allowed to be discussed on Weibo perhaps says just as much as what can be. There are a number of projects that aim to uncover content blocked on Weibo. Most of the people behind such efforts are China watchers based overseas or foreigners living in China. While they may have different approaches and backgrounds, their efforts are successful in bringing this vanished content back to light.

One such project, Freeweibo.com, won the 2013 Bobs, or Best of the Blogs awards, for best innovation in June. The Bobs awards, started by Deutsche Welle in 2004, are given out in 34 categories in 14 languages, and aim to honor the open exchange of ideas of free expression.

Hu Yong, a professor at Peking University and a new media observer, served as a juror at the awards. He commented that Freeweibo preserves digital memories and makes disappeared content visible again, according to the official website of the Bobs.

 

Alternative Weibo universe

Launched on October 10, 2012, Freeweibo retrieves data automatically from Weibo to provide "uncensored and anonymous Sina Weibo searches."

"We ignore relevant laws, legislation and policy," the welcome message on the website reads, a response to the expression Weibo and Chinese search engines use to explain why searches for certain words come back empty.

The website, in both English and Chinese, displays posts that are blocked or deleted on Sina Weibo. When searching for keywords, Freeweibo breaks search results down to "blocked by Sina Weibo" and "official search results," which allows users to see which search results are missing from the official Weibo.  

Freeweibo has around 10,000 unique visitors per day, with most coming from China, including Taiwan, based on the language setting, according to Percy Alpha, the pseudonym used by one of the founders.

A week after the website went live, it was blocked on the mainland. But the creators of the website have also been trying to provide mirror sites that are accessible without a VPN.

From the list of blocked keywords provided on the website, it is also clear when some words become sensitive and when such scrutiny is lifted.

For instance, the name of Bo Xilai, former Party chief of Chongqing who was recently prosecuted on corruption charges, was banned from searches until July 25, the day the news of his prosecution was announced.

 

Meet the founders

The same team also founded Greatfire.org back in 2011, a website that enables real-time testing of what is being blocked by the Great Firewall of China (GFW). URLs being tested are added by users or are imported from other similar projects. At the moment, the website monitors over 10,000 websites regularly to see if they are blocked and then analyzes precise methods of online monitoring such as connection resets, DNS poisonings and so on, explained Percy Alpha.

The website also provides an up-to-date database of URLs and keywords that are blocked.

Greatfire is also blocked in the mainland. Test data collected by the website clearly showed a 6-month gap between when its Chinese version was blocked and then the English.

The founders of the two websites have remained anonymous but one of the three is an American in China who goes by the alias Martin Johnson.

Percy Alpha would only say in an e-mail interview that he lived in China for a long time and is now based in the US. He said they are collaborating with other organizations and developers, though he wouldn't disclose the nature of the organizations they are working with or give further details about their collaboration.

According to their own introduction on Greatfire, they are self-financed but are exploring ways to "make the website a financially sustaining entity."

Percy Alpha said that what pushed him over the edge and made him start the project was the Google China dispute in 2010. Google refused to comply with China's regulations to filter search terms and later moved its Google China servers to Hong Kong.

Not long after that, search for individual characters, mostly those contained in Chinese leaders' names, were also blocked even when they are frequently used in other phrases and expressions.

"Chinese people in general know very little about censorship," Percy Alpha told the Global Times. He said that when he talked to Chinese people about the Google withdrawal from the mainland and searches being blocked, he found that most didn't seem to care and repeated the official line that censorship is just and necessary.

China's regulation on Internet information lists nine types of banned content, most of which concerns national security, state unity, rumors, pornography and violence. But in practice it isn't always clear where the line is and in the event of a breaking incident, certain words or phrases that are otherwise normal might become sensitive for a period of time.

Data provided by Greatfire has been used by other researchers to get to grips with Internet restrictions. In May, for instance, two professors from Northwestern University in the US used its data to study how the GFW affects users' online behavior.

Percy Alpha says the team is also developing easy tools that allow people to access free Internet and to make information available in China.

Zhang Zhi'an, an associate professor in new media at Sun Yat-sen University, said plenty of Chinese scholars also observe and study Weibo regulation. He acknowledged it might be easier for researchers overseas as they are not restricted by the GFW and take less risks when doing so.

"I don't know about their motives, but by presenting this blocked information, they allow more people to know about Internet regulation in China and provide data for other scholars who might be interested in studying China's Internet monitoring," he said.

 

Academic support

Their team isn't the first or the only one watching the censors and collecting data about blocked content. Many individual or academic efforts are also being made to take a closer look at how China's Internet and social media operate. Oftentimes, such projects inspire each other and even use each other's data.

For example, Freeweibo was inspired by and uses data from WeiboScope, a data collection and visualization system developed by the Journalism and Media Studies Center of the University of Hong Kong in 2011.

WeiboScope uses API tools provided by Weibo to retrieve posts from 350,000 users at set time intervals to show how posts are diffused and censored. People can also search for the most reposted microblogs with images within the past 24 hours or search for specific keywords in several languages. This allows people to get a real-time idea of trending topics on Weibo, without online monitoring.

With this tool, researchers at the school are able to assess online monitoring on Weibo and the impact of policies such as the real-name registration policy enacted last year that requires microbloggers  to register with their real identity.

The web page for WeiboScope is also not accessible in the mainland.

Another project centered in academia is China Digital Times, a bilingual news website that brings "uncensored news and online voices from China to the world." It is supported by the Counter-Power Lab at the School of Information, University of California, Berkeley. Both the Chinese and English websites are blocked.

Since 2011, it started a research project that aims to construct a database of sensitive Weibo search keywords. It's an open source project where Web users could pitch in.

Xiao Qiang, the founder and editor-in-chief of China Digital Times, is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley. He was a theoretical physicist by training and later became a human rights activist.

 

Other efforts

One of the few projects that remains accessible in the mainland is a Tumblr page called Blocked on Weibo, which documents words blocked on Sina Weibo and also offers contexts and explanations for the bans. The creator of the blog is Jason Q. Ng, a 2013 Google Policy Fellow at the University of Toronto's Citizen Lab.

Ng uses a different approach. He developed an automated process to check individual words to see whether they are blocked or not. He tested 700,000 Chinese Wikipedia titles in early 2012. The script performed searches on Weibo for three months and recorded whether they were censored. He collected over 150 terms and explained why they were sensitive in a book also entitled Blocked on Weibo which will be published next month.

Ng, a US citizen and a graduate student in East Asian Studies at the University of Pittsburgh, said he didn't have a background in computer science prior to this project.

He said he doesn't have an agenda with Blocked on Weibo, and that it's a "fun little challenge" for him as "coding is akin to solving a puzzle, solving little pieces at a time."

In his past career as a book editor, Ng worked on a book about China Central Television and developed an interest for how media works in China, he explained.

Ng wrote on his blog that he hopes his site "proves the resourcefulness and resiliency of Chinese netizens as well as the sense of responsibility that Chinese leaders (in the government and in private organizations) have for shepherding the country forward. You could even claim that the CCP [CPC] cares too much for its citizens."

Ng explained he meant no sarcasm by this. "Even though I don't agree with such a sentiment, I think it is part of a argument that needs to be legitimately considered in order for those outside China to begin understanding why such restrictions are in place in China," he said.  

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Thu, Nov 30, 2017

About those 674 apps that Apple censored in China

Apple opened the door on its censorship practices in China - but just a crack.

Tue, May 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

Mon, Dec 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

Thu, Nov 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

Tue, Jul 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

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